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Climate change is a global issue that has a major impact on one of them, Indonesia.

Climate change is a global issue that has a major impact on one of them, Indonesia.

Climate change is a global issue that has a major impact on one of them, Indonesia. Climate change has become a global issue with major impacts in many countries.

According to the United Nations, climate change is a change that refers to temperature and weather patterns on a long-term basis. This climate change phenomenon is a picture of global warming with the potential for a significant increase in greenhouse gases in the atmospheric layer, causing impacts on human health. 

Indonesia is one of the countries located on the equator with a significant influence on how climate change affects this country. It has three climates that are influenced by the geographical location of the climate, including tropical climate, monsoon climate, and marine climate. According to BMKG (Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics Agency), some areas in Indonesia have entered the dry season, as well as the potential for drought that can occur, especially in Indonesia south of the Equator, at least until the end of September. 

  • Located in the tropics with a climate that is usually hot and humid throughout the year, Indonesia has a high chance of long dry spells and droughts. This makes the country highly vulnerable to temperature changes that can have a major impact on the environment and society.
  • The ocean climate can be seen in Indonesia's marine ecosystem, including coral reefs, which are highly affected by changes in seawater temperature. Having a vast archipelago consisting of thousands of islands surrounded by oceans makes Indonesia highly vulnerable to climate change that impacts sea level rise. 
  • The existence of monsoon winds is one of the climate changes in Indonesia. It is the movement of air masses that causes changes in each season. Climate change can disrupt these monsoon patterns, resulting in the uncertainty of the rainy and dry seasons, impacting farmers and water availability. 

Climate change in Indonesia is caused by both natural and anthropogenic (human-caused) factors. Humans contribute significantly to climate change in Indonesia, including illegal logging, which causes the loss of forest cover and increases emissions of carbon stored in trees and soil into the atmosphere. The burning of peatlands to clear land for agriculture or oil palm plantations causes haze that impacts health. All of these anthropogenic factors are interconnected and exacerbate the impacts of climate change, such as increasing temperatures, changing rainfall patterns, and increasing the frequency of natural disasters such as floods and droughts. 

Not only are they influenced by anthropogenic factors, but natural factors also affect climate change in Indonesia. With thousands of islands, Indonesia is rich in mountains, so natural factors influencing climate change are influenced by the volcanic activity of active volcanoes. Volcanic eruptions can impact the global climate because they release volcanic gases and ash, sulfate aerosols, and volcanic cloud formation. All volcanic activity can impact rainfall patterns and alter cloud patterns. Indonesia is located on the Pacific Ring of Fire, which makes the country vulnerable to volcanic eruptions that can have local and global impacts on the climate. 

The impacts of climate change include environmental, economic, and social aspects. Changes in temperature have increased, causing changes in weather patterns and increasing the frequency of heat waves. This can impact public health, which can reduce labour productivity and increase energy demand for cooling. Changes in rainfall patterns are causing uncertainty in some areas, affecting agricultural systems with a lack of water supply, and increasing the risk of natural disasters. Rising sea levels due to global warming threaten Indonesia's coastal areas, including major cities such as Jakarta. Facing these impacts, Indonesia has taken various measures for climate change adaptation and mitigation, including increasing energy efficiency, forest conservation, and improving disaster risk management. 

Addressing climate change in Indonesia requires various sectors and involves many stakeholders. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the industrial, transportation, and residential sectors by increasing the use of renewable energy such as solar, wind, and geothermal power to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Forest conservation and rehabilitation by enforcing stricter laws against illegal logging and regulating forest land conversion. Replanting trees on degraded land and increasing forest cover. Reducing plastic waste and developing more efficient waste management systems to reduce methane emissions from landfills. 

Protection and restoration of marine ecosystems by conserving coral reefs threatened by ocean warming. Regulating sustainable fishing to prevent damage to marine ecosystems. Public education and awareness campaigns with environmental education campaigns to raise awareness about climate change and actions that can be taken to mitigate it. These solutions require commitment and cooperation from the government, private sector, communities, and local communities. By doing so, Indonesia can reduce the impacts of climate change and build resilience to climate threats. 


Source:  (3/6/2024).

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